I've come to realize something about my Nexus 10... and I'm not sure if it's an issue with MY nexus 10, or all Nexus 10s.
For some reason, this thing is REALLY finicky with the USB debugging mode. At home, I had to switch USB cables for my computer to even recognize the device. It was charging, but Windows did not see it at all until I switched cables.
Now, at work, I've tried 2 different USB cables with the same result for both cables: Windows recognizes the device, the drivers are installed, but it does NOTHING beyond recognizing it. It usually shows as a device in "My Computer". It's not there. IntelliJ IDEA (my programming IDE) doesn't recognize it. The ONLY places I can find it is in "Device Manager" and in the "Devices and Printers" screen.
I'm not sure, however, if this is a problem with the device, or possibly a problem with CyanogenMod. I just flashed CM a couple days ago, and haven't actually connected it to ANY computer since then, so it's possible that the issue is actually the ROM. However, I have not yet tried restoring my backup, or flashing back to stock, to see if the issue remains.